ブログ誕生 ――総表現社会を切り拓いてきた人々とメディア』巻末注




“Something very terrible just happened” James Marino’s posts are at http://www.broadwaystars.com/news/2001_09_09_starchive.shtml#5625730.

AP’s 8:55 AM report: http://www.interactivepublishing.net/september/browse.php?time=2001-09-11-9#.

Metafilter’s 8:58 AM report: http://www.metafilter.com/10034/.

“at these times there’s two types” Justin Hall’s 9/11 post is at http://www.links.net/daze/01/09/attack.html.

Evan Williams’s page aggregating Blogger posts from 9/11 is at http://web.archive.org/web/20010921091048/www.blogger.com/news_archive.pyra.

“I see this as an opportunity” Dave Winer’s 9/11 posts are at http://www.scripting.com/2001/09/11.html.

In September 2001, conventional wisdom E.g., “Web content is dead as an independent business,” John Motavalli, Bamboozled at the Revolution: How Big Media Lost Billions in the Battle for the Internet (Viking, 2002), p. 302.

同時多発テロ発生時およびその後におけるメディアの利用状況に関する研究。テロ後、間隔をおいて複数回、米国人のメディア利用状況をThe Pew Internet & American Life Projectが調査した。もっとも包括的な報告書は、1年後に発行されたものhttp://www.pewinternet.org/report_display.asp?r=69である

“Only through the human stories” Nick Denton in The Guardian, at http://web.archive.org/web/20010921095958/www.guardian.co.uk/Archive/Article/0,4273,4260486,00.html.

“When the Maine was sunk” David Weinberger, JOHO, Sept. 27, 2001, at http://www.hyperorg.com/backissues/ joho-sep27-01.html#news.

blogging had “come of age” In CNET, at http://www.news.com/2010-1071-81560.html?legacy=cnet.

1 ティム・バーナーズ=リーのW3 Serversページはhttp://www.w3.org/History/19921103-hypertext/hypertext/DataSources/WWW/Servers.htmlにある。ただしこれは、1992113日付けのページである。情報に日付は付記されていないが、ページに表示されるリストの上部は時系列逆順となっており、最新情報がトップに追加される形式となっていたと、バーナーズ=リーは電子メールで証言している。

“everybody should be using the Web” This and following quotations taken from author interview with Andreessen, Feb. 29, 2008.

NCSA What’s New page http://web.archive.org/web/20020623141952/http://wp.netscape.com/home/whatsnew/whats_new_0693.html.

The top of the page would display first Joshua Quittner and Michelle Slatalla,Speeding the Net: The Inside Story of Netscape and How It Challenged Microsoft (Atlantic Monthly Press, 1998), p. 126.

“The initial WorldWideWeb program opened” Tim Berners- Lee, Weaving the Web: The Original Design and Ultimate Destiny of the World Wide Web by Its Inventor (HarperSanFrancisco, 1999), p. 157.

“By many measures . . . the Web reached” Michael Hiltzik in the Los Angeles Times, Aug. 13, 1997, reposted by CNN Interactive at http://www.cnn.com/TECH/9708/13/web.substance.lat/index.html.

most of the Web was “crap” Michael Kinsley, quoted by Howard Kurtz in the Washington Post, “Kinsley Tabs Over to On- Line Magazine for Microsoft,” Nov. 7, 1995.

“The first time you go on the Web” Michael Kinsley, interviewed in Folio magazine, Feb 1, 1997, at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m3065/is_n2_v26/ai_19077993.



――第1章 すべてをさらけ出す――

“It’s so much fun . . . putting everything out there” Justin Hall on camera in Home Page, 1998 documentary film by Doug Block.

“I really enjoy urinating” http://www.links.net/daze/05/01/02/whew.html.

“smart, motivated gal” http://www.links.net/daze/05/01/02/meet_an_angel.html.


Dark Night video: http://www.links.net/daze/05/01/14/dark_night_flick.html.

“raised by a series of nannies” http://www.links.net/vita/.

“It wasn’t just a bunch of fifteen- year- olds” This and following quotations not otherwise sourced are from interviews with the author conducted in 2008.

“a map to the buried treasures” John Markoff’s Dec. 8, 1993, New York Times article about the new World Wide Web is at http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9F0CE1D6113FF93BA35751C1A965958260&sec=&spon=&pagewanted=all.

Justin Hall’s first Web page is at http://web.archive.org/web/19980128021607/links.net/vita/web/start/original.html.

Ranjit’s HTTP playground” http://web.archive.org/web/19990203094324/http://www.moonmilk.com/playground.html.

「ランチサーバー」 http://www.moonmilk.com/previous/miscellany/lunch.html. バトナガーは著者との面談時、このアイデアはインターネットで知り合った、ショー・クワモトという人物から拝借したと語った。ショーは毎日、“.plan”ファイルを使って昼食の内容を書いていたという。“.plan”ファイルは個人情報を記載するもので、インターネット初期のユーザーはこれを巧みに活用していた。「ちょっとした、おもしろい個人情報だったんだ。写真のツイッターみたいにね」(バトナガー)

“Either the guy was such a brazen suckupHoward Rheingold tells the story of his meeting Hall at http://www.well.com/~hlr/jam/justin/justin.html.

“the era of public- access Internet has come to an end” Louis Rossetto’s quote is in Gary Wolf, Wired: A Romance (Random House, 2003), p. 113.

“Prodigious Personal Publishing Potential” http://www.links.net/webpub/.

“we abide by the principle which dictates” Suck’s manifesto is reprinted in Joey Anuff and Ana Marie Cox, eds., Suck: Worst- case Scenarios in Media, Culture, Advertising, and the Internet (Wired, 1997), page viii. Matt Sharkey wrote a thorough history of Suck.com at http://www.keepgoing.org/issue20_giant/the_big_fish.html.

“probably the folks in the room” http://www.links.net/vita/hw/third.html.

“daily thoughts, a useful notion” http://www.links.net/daze/96/01/10/.

Cyborganic Jeff Goodell wrote a profile of Cyborganic and its creators, titled “The Webheads on Ramona Street,” in Rolling Stone, Nov. 30, 1995.

“am I afraid that my 5 year old nephew” http://www.justin.org/law/cda/protect.html.

“There was always a German camera crew” Author interview with Gary Wolf, May 12, 2008.

A famous magazine cover Widely quoted on the Web in this form and credited to a magazine titled Sniffin Glue, the original is reprinted in Jon Savage, England’s Dreaming (St. Martin’s, 1992), p. 280, and is actually from the Dec. 1976 issue of Sideburns. The exact text here reads: “This is a chord. This is another. This is a third. NOW FORM A BAND.”

“The Wyrd of Wired” http://www.links.net/vita/swat/course/histlang/wyrd.html.

“You know how cats’ dicks swell up” http://www.links.net/vita/corp/catdick/.

“hordes of voyeurs discovered legions of exhibitionists” Wolf, Wired, p. 138.

“What does everyone think of Justin?” This anecdote is from the Home Page documentary.

“neither one of my parents” Hall onscreen in Home Page.

NewD irections” . . . “If everyone was to tell” http://www.links.net/share/speak/ndn/pubpower.html.

“You can’t tell whether he’s kidding” Author interview with Howard Rheingold, April 15, 2008.

TIME TO GET A LIFE” San Francisco Chronicle, Feb. 20, 2005, at http://www.sfgate.com/ cgi- bin/article.cgi?file=/c/a/2005/02/20/MNGBKBEJO01.DTL.

“Something deep in me was being fed” Hall’s post is at http://www.links.net/daze/05/01/07/wordless.html. Subsequent comments are at http://www.links.net/daze/05/01/07/wordless-comments.html.

“Everyone has a website” Author interview with Merci Hammon via email.



――第2章 個人の声をそのまま発信――

He sent Canter’s invitation The first DaveNet message is at http://www.scripting.com/davenet/1994/10/07/marccantersingsagain.html. The complete DaveNet archive is at http://www.scripting.com/davenet/index.html.

“Bill Gates vs. the Internet” DaveNet essay at http://www.scripting.com/davenet/1994/10/18/billgatesvstheinternet.html. Gates’s response: DaveNet essay at http://www.scripting.com/davenet/1994/10/27/replyfrombillgates.html.

John Seabrook’s “Email from Bill”: The New Yorker, Jan. 10, 1994, http://www.booknoise.net/johnseabrook/stories/technology/email/index.html.

“Ask any expert who’s been interviewed” Dave Winer, April 16, 2004, posting on the BloggerCon site at http://www.bloggercon.org/2004/04/16.

The San Francisco Free Press is archived at http://www.well.com/conf/media/SF_Free_Press/.

“When I first understood how the Web worked” This and other direct quotations are from a series of author interviews with Dave Winer in 2008.

“Billions of Websites” DaveNet essay at http://www.scripting.com/davenet/1995/02/18/billionsofwebsites.html.

“We make shitty software” DaveNet essay at http://www.scripting.com/davenet/1995/09/03/wemakeshittysoftware.html.

“A Tough Customer” DaveNet essay at http://www.scripting.com/davenet/1995/02/12/atoughcustomer.html.

Winer sat in a crowd of the industry elite Winer’s account of the Ellison encounter is at http://www.scripting.com/davenet/1996/10/24/QueSeraSera.html. Other details confirmed in author email interview with Stewart Alsop.

“All my life, I’ve placed the highest value” Winer’s first column for Hotwired is at http://web.archive.org/web/20010610045754/hotwired.lycos.com/davenet/95/29/index4a.html.

Newsweek’s 1995 list of the fifty “Most Influential People to Watch in Cyberspace” is at http://www.newsweek.com/id/106555.

“I’m zooooooooming!” Suck’s DaveNet parody is at http://web.archive.org/web/20040226210138/suck.com/daily/1996/01/12/.

“I’m right, therefore you’re wrong” Winer’s “ flame- reduction suggestion” column from Hotwired is at http://web.archive.org/web/20010609040625/hotwired.lycos.com/davenet/96/16/index4a.html.

The 24 Hours of Democracy project is archived at http://www.scripting.com/twentyFour/.

The “news page” for the 24 Hours of Democracy project is at http://www.scripting.com/twentyfour/news.html.

Earliest archives of Frontier News & Updates page are listed at http://web.archive.org/web/19970415002457/http://www.scripting.com/frontier/admin/oldNewsPages/default.html. The earliest entry, from April 27, 1996, is at http://web.archive.org/web/19970219204546/www.scripting.com/frontier/admin/oldNewsPages/archives96/jun.html.

Winer changed the name The first page labeled Scripting News, from February 1997, is at http://web.archive.org/web/19970721193700/www.scripting.com/frontier/admin/oldNewsPages/archives97/feb.html.

“Your website has finally started to make sense” Eric Sink’s email is at http://www.scripting.com/mail/mail981228.html.

“Almost all the other elements can be missing” Dave Winer, “What makes a weblog a weblog?” May 23, 2003, at http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/whatmakesaweblogaweblog.html.

Third Voice debate: Rogers Cadenhead’s first message is at http://lists.userland.com/userLandDiscussArchive/msg011525.html. “If any Third Voice users are tuned in”: http://static.userland.com/userLandDiscussArchive/msg011532.html.

“I would certainly object” http://lists.userland.com/userLandDiscussArchive/msg011537.html.

“So much for my theory” http://static.userland.com/userLandDiscussArchive/msg012301.html.

“I’m still spending a lot of time” Winer shuts down Userland discussion group, at http://static.userland.com/userLandDiscussArchive/msg021856.html.

“I admire his intellect” Greg Knauss, author email interview, May 2008.

Winerlog is archived at http://web.archive.org/web/20010221070007/winerlog.editthispage.com/2000/03/02.

one incident, in May 2000 http://web.archive.org/web/20010124201300/http://flounder.editthispage.com/discuss/msgReader$177. Also discussed on Metafilter at http://www.metafilter.com/1580/.

“He should get an iPhonehttp://twitter.com/davewiner/statuses/137599502. Winer’s comment responds to http://pulverblog.pulver.com/archives/007195.html

“People aren’t supposed to listen” http://www.scripting.com/2007/07.html

Video of Jason Calacanis at Gnomedex is at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=C4iTTKF2bkg.

“I hate speeches that are ads” http://www.scripting.com/2007/08/10.html.

“What perplexes me is why Dave” http://calacanis.com/2007/08/11/ on- gettingwinered/.

“I wish I hadn’t done it” http://www.scripting.com/stories/2007/08/13/apologiesToCalacanis.html.

“Today I got a brief note” http://www.scripting.com/stories/2007/08/16/aSacredLine.html.

“A sure way to become a former friend” http://www.scripting.com/stories/2007/08/17/friendshipAndBlogging.html.



――第3章 リンクで人物がわかる――

“It feels to me like we’ve got” William Gibson interview at http://www.salon.com/weekly/gibson2961014.html.

“worked on self- discovery” Jorn Barger, “My background in AI,” http://web.archive.org/web/20060314214425/www.robotwisdom.com/ai/jbai.html.

“Joyce modestly bragged” This and subsequent otherwise unattributed quotes are from author email interview with Barger, March 2008.

“do psychology scientifically” From “Portrait of the Blogger as a Young Man,” Julian Dibbell’s profile of Barger in Feed, May 3, 2000, at http://www.juliandibbell.com/texts/feed_blogger.html.

“Literature . . . is descriptive psychology” From Barger’s profile on Epinions, at http://web.archive.org/web/20060623120148/www.epinions.com/user-jorn.

building a file of index cards A full account of Barger’s AI ideas can be found beginning at http://web.archive.org/web/20060314212941/www.robotwisdom.com/ai/index.html.

“ Anti- Math” Details at http://web.archive.org/web/20060314202426/http://www.robotwisdom.com/ai/antimath.html and http://web.archive.org/web/20060314233535/www.robotwisdom.com/ai/antimath1.html.

“If you enumerate” http://web.archive.org/web/20060314214315/www.robotwisdom.com/ai/ilsmemoir.html.

“a new paradigm for the social sciences” From “Solace,” at http://web.archive.org/web/20060314212952/www.robotwisdom.com/solace/index.html.

Barger and Roger Schank: http://web.archive.org/web/20060314214315/www.robotwisdom.com/ai/ilsmemoir.html.

Barger’s history on Usenet: http://web.archive.org/web/20060314204152/www.robotwisdom.com/jorn/internet.html.

a “lightning- rod for a- holes” From a “wikipedia template” of autobiographical information Barger posted in 2007, at http://robotwisdom2.blogspot.com/2007/08/jorn-barger-wikipedia-template.html.

“By that point . . . the Web had grown into” From “The Human Behind Robot Wisdom,” 1999 interview with Barger, at http://www.webword.com/interviews/barger.html.

“finding good stuff and arranging it” . . . “At first I didn’t intend” Author’s email interview with Barger.80 “It was a way for me to play” Author interview with Michael Sippey, April 2008. 80 The earliest extant entry on the Obvious Filter from May 28, 1997, is at http://web.archive.org/web/19971015050716/theobvious.com/filter/filter0597.html.

That didn’t stop several media outlets “Blogs turn 10— who’s the father?”,

CNET, March 20, 2007, at http://news.com.com/In+search+of+the+creator+of+the+first+blog/ 2100-1025_3-6168681.html; “Happy Blogiversary,” Wall Street

Journal, July 14, 2007, at http://online.wsj.com/article/SB118436667045766268.html.

Steve Bogart’s NowThis.com is at http://nowthis.com/oldsite/ and http://nowthis.com/oldsite/archive/. The earliest archives for Harold Stusnick’sOffhand Remarks are available from 1999 at http://web.archive.org/web/20000818154140/www.offhand.com/archive/index.html. Howard Rheingold’s

earliest “What’s New and Rheingoldian?” page is at http://www.well.com/~hlr/oldnew1.html.

“I try to make it my ethic” From Dibbell’s “Portrait of the Blogger as a Young Man.”

Matt Drudge as “the Walter Cronkite of his era” from Mark Halperin and John

Harris, The Way to Win: Taking the White House in 2008 (Random House, 2006).

“the most powerful journalist in America” Pat Buchanan on MSNBC’s

Scarborough Country, Oct. 17, 2006, transcript at http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/15317544/.

Philip Weiss’s New York profile of Drudge is at http://nymag.com/news/media/36617/.

「ドラッジの収入」−ドラッジに関する記事(http://www.wordsonwords.com/reviews/Drudge903.html)を、2003年、Richard Pachterがマイアミ・ヘラルド紙に書き、ドラッジの収入を推定120万ドルだとした。85 Jesse James Garrett was working Author interview with Garrett, April 2008.

Early editions of CamWorld’s blogroll are not archived in the Internet Archive.

Barrett was teaching an introductory Web class Author interview with Barrett, March 2008.

Rebecca Blood’s history of weblogs essay: http://www.rebeccablood.net/essays/weblog_history.html. Blood’s observation of discovering her true interests throughblogging is also described in her Weblog Handbook (Perseus, 2002), p. 30.

Leslie Harpold’s “Logrolling” essay from Smug.com: http://web.archive.org/web/19990824022812/http://www.smug.com/29/net.html.

Ben Brown’s “Open Letter” in Teethmag.com: http://web.archive.org/web/19990921080253/http://www.teethmag.com/showart.pl?pid=50.

“I live on bread and water” From Dibbell’s “Portrait of the Blogger as a Young Man.”

“I have a gigantic psychological block” Barger as quoted in Wired News at http://www.wired.com/culture/lifestyle/news/2003/12/61458.

Paul Boutin’s Wired story: http://www.wired.com/wired/archive/13.07/posts.html?pg=6. Boutin’s blog corrects the headline: http://paulboutin.weblogger.com/2005/07/03/jorn-barger-lost-found-lost-again/.

“libelous fiction” http://robotwisdom2.blogspot.com/2007/08/jorn-barger-wikipediatemplate.html.

“He’s shy” Author interview with Andrew Orlowski, June 2008.

On December 26, 1999, he’d posted a link http://web.archive.org/web/20000817182540/http://www.robotwisdom.com/log1999m12b.html.

a writer named Leonard Grossman http://lgrossman.com/mjnk/mjnk0001.htm.

Webloggers gamble their reputation” Barger’s post was on Philip Greenspun’s discussion boards, at http://www.greenspun.com/bboard/q-and-a-fetch-msg.tcl?msg_id=002IfK.

“Is Judaism simply a religion” Barger’s link is at http://web.archive.org/web/20010118201600/http://www.robotwisdom.com/.

“Are Jews incapable of polite discourse?” Posted on Philip Greenspun’s dis cussion board at http://greenspun.com/bboard/q-and-a-fetch-msg.tcl?msg_id=004ImF.

Barger pinpointed his post about Shahak http://robotwisdom2.blogspot.com/2006/12/my-spiritualesthetic-evolutioneducation.html.



――第4章 ブロガー・カタパルト――

In May 1999, Peter Merholz Merholz’s account of the origins of the term is at http://www.peterme.com/archives/00000205.html. The original note in the lefthandcolumn is not archived anywhere.

“That seemed like a great idea” This and subsequent otherwise uncredited quotes are from author interview with Williams, August 2007.

Meg Hourihan was her name This story and all otherwise unattributed material about Hourihan is from author interview with Hourihan, March 2008.

“A friend told me this story” From Meg Hourihan’s Megnut blog, April 14, 2000, at http://meg.hourihan.com/2000/04/ive-been-thinking-a-lot.

“New Evidence Suggests” Evan Williams blog post from November 1998, at http://web.archive.org/web/19990911164858/evhead.com/column.asp?id=3.

Pyralerts are archived at http://web.archive.org/web/20000523150605/www.pyra.com/pyralert_archive.asp.

“The idea was that we’d network” Author interview with Bausch, April 2008.

the beta version of the Pyra app Details at http://web.archive.org/web/20010212054142/www.pyra.com/1999_08_01_pyralert_archive.asp.

In Seattle, a freshman programming prodigy LiveJournal details are from Brad Fitzpatrick’s account of the origins of LiveJournal at http://bradfitz.com/misc/bct/, as well as author interview with Fitzpatrick, January 2009.

Paul Kedrosky had converted his personal weblog Author interview with Paul Kedrosky, July 2008. Kedrosky’s brief history of Groksoup is at http://paul.kedrosky.com/archives/2004/08/09/groksoup_and_th.html.

“I’m just a bad business guy” Author interview with Andrew Smales, July 2008.

“My Ass is a Weblog” Greg Knauss writing on Michael Sippey’s Stating the Obvious, at http://www.theobvious.com/archive.html?112299.

“It’s much easier to feel like you’re tuned in” February 2001 interview with Evan Williams at writetheweb.com, http://web.archive.org/web/20011120165654/http://writetheweb.com/read.php?item=107.

Rebecca Blood . . . suggested From “Weblogs: A History and Perspective,” at http://www.rebeccablood.net/essays/weblog_history.html.

In February 2000, Wired News took note Leander Kahney’s piece is at http://www.wired.com/culture/lifestyle/news/2000/02/34006.

On April 14 the official Blogger news page http://web.archive.org/web/20011003223424/www.blogger.com/news_archive.pyra?which=2000_04_01_news_archive.xml.

he didn’t want to be the “asshole” This quotation is from the interview with Williams in Founders at Work: Stories of Startups’ Early Days (Apress, 2007), p. 118.

Both Paul Bausch and Matt Haughey remember thinking Author interviews with Bausch and Haughey, April 2008.

“You’ve Got Blog” Rebecca Mead’s New Yorker piece is at http://www.newyorker.com/archive/2000/11/13/2000_11_13_102_TNY_LIBRY_000022068, and also reprinted in We’ve Got Blog: How Weblogs Are Changing Our Culture (Perseus,2002).

“And Then There Was One” http://web.archive.org/web/20011214143830/http://www.evhead.com/longer/2200706_essays.asp.

“It seems stupid now” Matt Haughey’s account of Pyra’s shutdown is at http://www.haughey.com/pyra.html.

“I loved Blogger more than PyraPaul Bausch’s thoughts on the Pyra shutdown are at http://web.archive.org/web/20010208104656/http://onfocus.com/pyra.asp.

“On January 16th, every employee” Hourihan’s post is at http://web.archive.org/web/20010917033719/http://www.megnut.com/archive.asp?which=2001_02_01_archive.inc.

“As a believer in webloggingDan Bricklin’s post on the Trellix/Blogger deal is at http://danbricklin.com/log/blogger.htm.

“The Idealist,” by Alex Lash, The Industry Standard, May 28, 2001, at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0HWW/is_21_4/ai_75532465/pg_13/.

“We said there are three companies” Author interview with Jason Shellen, August  2008. Other details on the Google negotiations are from author email interview with Mark Jacobsen of O’Reilly, December 2008.


“the Blogger Effect” Steven Johnson’s article, “Use the Blog, Luke,” is at http://dir.salon.com/story/tech/feature/2002/05/10/blogbrain/index.html.


from three thousand accounts in early 2000 This figure is drawn from http://www.wired.com/culture/lifestyle/news/2000/02/34006.

100,000 a year later The number is from “Who’s Blogging Now?” Newsweek, March 5, 2001, at http://www.newsweek.com/id/80101/page/2.

over a million . . . at the time of the Google deal http://searchenginewatch.com/showPage.html?page=2161891.

“profoundly, spectacularly, epically wrong” Knauss, from author email interview, May 2008.

In a talk at a 2007 conference Williams’s talk at the Web 2.0 Conference was covered at http://www.informationweek.com/blog/main/archives/2007/10/liveblogging_we_2.html.



ーー――第5章 政治系ブログの台頭――

But he found himself frustrated Author interview with Josh Marshall, April 2008. Also “The (Josh) Marshall Plan,” by David Glenn, Columbia Journalism Review, Sept. 2007, at http://www.cjr.org/feature/the_josh_marshall_plan.php?page=all.

the first post at a new blog http://www.talkingpointsmemo.com/archives/week_2000_11_12.php

“There was hardly any curiosity” Author interview with Dan Gillmor, August 2008.

“I didn’t know it was a blog” Author interview with Mickey Kaus, August 2008.

each time he needed to post something new Author email interview with Andrew Sullivan, August 2008.

“With only a few hundred readers” “A Blogger Manifesto,” Andrew Sullivan, February 2002, at http://web.archive.org/web/20020329011512/http://www.andrewsullivan.com/print.php?artnum=20020224.

Earliest entries from Bob Somerby’s Daily Howler: http://www.dailyhowler.com/archives_98.shtml. From Virginia Postrel’s The Scene, http://www.dynamist.com/weblog/archives/2000/dec25.html. From Glenn Reynolds’ Instapundit, http://www.pajamasmedia.com/instapundit-archive/oldarchives/2001_08_05_instapundit_archive.html.

“marinating in the deeper wells” Author email interview with Matt Welch, August 2008.

“Welcome to War” http://www.mattwelch.com/archives/2001/09/16-week/.

“a linebacker- style hit” Matt Welch, “Farewell to Warblogging,” Reason, April 2006, at http://www.reason.com/news/show/33290.html.

“I was a block away from the South Tower” Author interview with Jeff Jarvis, March 2008.

“a conservative is a liberal who has been mugged” Jeff Jarvis interview at http://normblog.typepad.com/normblog/2003/12/the_normblog_pr_2.html.

Charles Johnson self- description as “ center- liberal” is at http://www.israelnationalnews.com/News/News.aspx/62000.

“The ‘war bloggers’ are like 1998 all over again” Private email from Matt Haughey to Jesse James Garrett’s weblogs mailing list, January 2002. Used withpermission.

“Blood’s Law of Weblog History” Rebecca Blood on Rebecca’s Pocket, January 6, 2004, at http://www.rebeccablood.net/archive/2004/01.html.

Anil Dash . . . offered a corollary From Dash’s link blog at http://web.archive.org/web/20040404093501/www.dashes.com/links/archives/20040104.php.

Earliest posts for Atrios’s Eschaton are at http://www.eschatonblog.com/2002_04_14_archive.html. For Jerome Armstrong’s MyDD: http://web.archive.org/web/20020601100213/www.mydd.com/archives/. For Markos Moulitsas Zuniga’s Daily Kos: http://web.archive.org/web/20021115215215/http://www.dailykos.com/archives/2002_05.html.

“One of my biggest pet peeves” Interview with Markos Moulitsas Zuniga in David Kline and Dan Burstein, Blog! How the Newest Media Revolution Is Changing Politics,Business and Culture (CDS Books, 2005), p. 48.

A brief Friday-morning item in the Note http://abcnews.go.com/sections/politics/DailyNews/TheNote_Dec6.html.

144 Thomas Edsall followed up “Lott Decried for Part of Salute to Thurmond,” Washington Post, Dec. 7, 2002, at http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wpdyn%3Fpagename=article&contentId=A20730-2002Dec6&notFound=true.

Two leading political Web ’zines Joe Conason in Salon at http://dir.salon.com/story/politics/conason/2002/12/09/lott/index.html, Tim Noah in Slate at http://www.slate.com/?id=2075151.

“Trent Lott deserves the shit he’s getting” Glenn Reynolds at http://www.pajamasmedia.com/instapundit-archive/archives/005985.php.

“Oh, what could have been!!!” This and subsequent Marshall quotations on Lott are at http://www.talkingpointsmemo.com/archives/week_2002_12_01.php, and http://www.talkingpointsmemo.com/archives/week_2002_12_08.php.

“he waited to post it until he could confirm it” Marshall discusses this at http://www.talkingpointsmemo.com/archives/146816.php.

“The Internet’s First Scalp” John Podhoretz in the New York Post, Dec. 13, 2002, at http://web.archive.org/web/*/http://www.nypost.com/postopinion/opedcolumnists/51499.htm.

a detailed case study . . . by Harvard’s Kennedy School of Government Archived at http://web.archive.org/web/20040412233307/http://www.ksg.harvard.edu/presspol/Research_Publications/Case_Studies/1731_0.pdf.

“must reading for the politically curious” Paul Krugman in the New York Times, Dec. 13, 2002, at http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9803E4DE103AF930A25751C1A9649C8B63.

Marshall finished the dissertation’s final draft http://talkingpointsmemo.com/archives/147013.php.

Kos traced the core of his community He tells the story at http://www.dailykos.com/story/2004/8/5/35451/65527/473/42251.

Goddard welcomed the influx Author interview with Taegan Goddard, August 2008.

“I had learned my lessons from Political Wire”; “I actually didn’t think anyone would use the diaries” http://www.dailykos.com/story/2004/8/5/35451/65527/473/42251.

“screw them” http://www.dailykos.com/story/2004/4/1/144156/3224.

“I was the one war critic” Kos interview in Kline and Burstein, Blog!, p. 42.

“It’s 2001, and we can Fact Check your ass” Ken Layne on his blog, Dec. 9, 2001, at http://web.archive.org/web/20011214072915/http://kenlayne.com/2000/2001_12_09_logarc.html#7775214.

“For the first time in six decades” Peter Wehner’s memo is quoted at http://msnbc.msn.com/id/6791950/ and http://www.talkingpointsmemo.com/archives/149796.php.

“abolishing Social Security isn’t just any issue” http://www.talkingpointsmemo.com/archives/149772.php.

“This isn’t about financing” http://www.talkingpointsmemo.com/archives/004236.php.

“All the folks who cover the White House” http://www.talkingpointsmemo.com/archives/150038.php.

“Do journalists really have to genuflect” http://www.talkingpointsmemo.com/archives/149970.php.

“Making the elimination of Social Security” http://www.talkingpointsmemo.com/archives/004236.php.

“Where do your representatives and senators stand” http://www.talkingpointsmemo.com/archives/149700.php.

“Stop what you’re doing! Spit out your drink!” http://www.talkingpointsmemo.com/archives/2005_01_27.php.

“The bamboozlepalooza begins!” http://www.talkingpointsmemo.com/archives/150018.php.

600,000 monthly visitors As reported at the time on the site for Blogads, which sold TPM’s advertising, at http://web.archive.org/web/20050111043530/http://www.blogads.com/order.

“It would have been impossible for me” http://www.talkingpointsmemo.com/archives/005312.php.

“the edge of my comfort zone” Author interview with Marshall, April 2008.

Marshall’s George Polk Award announced at http://www.brooklyn.liu.edu/polk/press/2007.html.

“Schlesinger’s wife asked me to explain” http://www.talkingpointsmemo.com/archives/147911.php.

“I hate the bloggers!” Video of John McCain’s comment is at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6o07p7JyzuY.

“talk about a direct IV” Dan Bartlett’s quotation is from an interview in Texas Monthly, Jan. 2008, at http://www.texasmonthly.com/2008-01-01/talks-2.php.

“can’t decide between loving the big media” Mattthew Klam, “Fear and Laptops on the Campaign Trail,” The New York Times Magazine, Sep. 26, 2004, at http://www.nytimes.com/2004/09/26/magazine/26BLOGS.html.

“If I had quickly happened into a staff position” Noam Cohen, “Blogger, Sans Pajamas, Rakes Muck and a Prize,” New York Times, Feb. 25, 2008, at http://www.nytimes.com/2008/02/25/business/media/25marshall.html.

“What I backed into” Klam, “Fear and Laptops.”



――第6章 ブログで稼ぐ――

“I said out loud: There it is” Scripting News, March 2, 2007, at http://stories.scripting.com/2007/03/02/empireOfTheAir.html.

“I wanted to say that I am a Microsoft person” Joshua Allen, quoted in Robert Scoble and Shel Israel, Naked Conversations: How Blogs Are Changing the Way Businesses Talk with Customers (John Wiley & Sons, 2006), p. 11.

There was no explicit policy” Allen’s account of his early blogging is at http://web.archive.org/web/20051018193845/http://www.netcrucible.com/blog/PermaLink.aspx?guid=c0d3c5c7-ad8b-4120-b827-4bdb802bef0c.

The Cluetrain Manifesto http://www.cluetrain.com.

By spring 2003, about one hundred Microsoft employees As reported by Robert Scoble at http://scoble.weblogs.com/2003/04/27.html.

His blog had played a “major role” http://scoble.weblogs.com/2003/04/15.html.

Scoble dead pool http://scoble.weblogs.com/2003/05/10.html.

Weblogging is like dancing in a field of land mines” http://scoble.weblogs.com/2003/05/31.html.

Scoble’s title ought to be “chief humanizing officer” The Economist, Feb. 10, 2005, at http://www.economist.com/people/displayStory.cfm?story_id=3644293.

“Corporate Weblog Manifesto” http://scoble.weblogs.com/2003/02/26.html.

“The thing is that I don’t have any credibility left” http://scoble.weblogs.com/2004/09/23.html.

Joel on Software http://www.joelonsoftware.com/.

English Cut http://www.englishcut.com/.

“The demonstration of knowledge and expertise over time” Jon Udell’s state ment is from the 2003 Bloggercon conference at Harvard Law School. Recordings are at http://www.cmsreview.com/Videos/Bloggercon.html. Udell’s comment can be found in the audio Tape Five at about the 1 hour 5 minute mark.

“If you’re into blogs to make money” Doc Searls in Steven Levy, “The Alpha Bloggers,” Newsweek, Dec. 1, 2004, at http://www.newsweek.com/id/55915/page/3.

Andrew Sullivan’s “tip jar”: The $27,000 figure is from Sullivan’s Blogger Manifesto at http://web.archive.org/web/20020329011512/http://www.andrewsullivan.com/print.php?artnum=20020224.

Chris Allbritton raised about $14,000 Documented at http://www.back-toiraq.com/.

“We’ve been wondering when blogging” Nick Denton announced Gizmodo’s launch on his blog on Aug. 1, 2002, at http://web.archive.org/web/20021010115538/www.nickdenton.org/archives/2002_08_01_archive.htm.

“The one common theme is to take an obsession” “America’s First Blog Mogul,” The Independent, Nov. 29, 2004, at http://web.archive.org/web/20041204112228/http://news.independent.co.uk/media/story.jsp?story=587881.

Spiers reportedly earned just $2,000 a month Steven Levy, “How Can I Sex Up This Blog Business?” Wired, June 2004, at http://www.wired.com/wired/archive/12.06/blog.html.

By 2005 the typical pay March 2005 interview with Gawker editor Lockhart Steele at http://www.iwantmedia.com/people/people49.html.

“handed out rote poundings” Jack Shafer in Slate, March 11, 2004, at http://www.slate.com/id/2096976/.

“Immediacy is more important than accuracy” Denton’s quote is from Julie Bosman, “First with the Scoop, if Not the Truth,” New York Times, April 18, 2004, at http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9402E6DA123BF93BA25757C0A9629C8B63&sec=&spon=&pagewanted=all.

a measly $2,000 per month From Denton’s blog, Sept. 12, 2003, at http://web.archive.org/web/20031206095421/www.nickdenton.org/archives/008760.html#008760.

“The basic business model” Nick Denton, quoted in Simon Dumenco, “Blog, Blog, Blog,” New York, Nov. 3, 2003, at http://nymag.com/nymetro/news/media/columns/download/n_9457/.

brought in about $200,000 total from 2003 through 2008 Author email interview with Glenn Fleishman, Sept. 2008.

launching three hundred blogs Daniel Terdiman, “Toward a Weblogging Empire,” Wired News, Sept. 25, 2003, at http://www.wired.com/news/business/0,1367,60552,00.html.

The cross- blog sniping was intense E.g., Denton at http://web.archive.org/web/20031206095816/www.nickdenton.org/archives/009038.html#9038; and Calacanis at http://web.archive.org/web/20031120004455/calacanis.weblogsinc.com/.

First, Calacanis advised Spiers As reported in Terdiman, “Toward a Weblogging Empire.”

Calacanis should hold the hype” Denton post from Sept. 12, 2003, at http://web.archive.org/web/20031206095421/www.nickdenton.org/archives/008760.html#008760.

Rojas . . . “poached” by his rival Denton post from March 8, 2004, at http://web.archive.org/web/20040514030020/www.nickdenton.org/001961.html#1961.

“You can’t say ‘Work with me for as little as possible’” Calacanis as quoted in New York, “Intelligencer: Gawker’s Stalker,” March 15, 2004, at http://web.archive.org/web/20040402170359/www.newyorkmetro.com/nymetro/news/people/columns/intelligencer/n_10023/.

“I was, as they say back home, royally shafted” Denton’s post from March 8, 2004, at http://web.archive.org/web/20040514030020/www.nickdenton.org/001961.html#1961.

“Anyone can start a blog” Rojas in Clive Thompson, “Blogs to Riches,” New York, Feb. 12, 2006, at http://nymag.com/news/media/15967/.

he sold Weblogs Inc. to America Online The figure appears in Eryn Brown, “Revenge of the Dotcom Poster Boy,” Wired, Jan. 2006, at http://www.wired.com/wired/archive/14.01/blogger.html; and in John Heilemann, “Suit 2.0,” New York, July 3, 2006, at http://nymag.com/news/politics/powergrid/17398/.

“There is no doubt that there is a bubble” Denton in David Carr, “A Blog Mogul Turns Bearish on Blogs,” New York Times, July 3, 2006, at http://www.nytimes.com/2006/07/03/technology/03carr.htm.

“Because it would be too hard to start over” Ibid.

By 2007, Gawker Media had grown . . . $10–12 million in annual profits Vanessa Grigoriadis, “Everybody Sucks: Gawker and the Rage of the Creative Underclass,” New York, Oct. 15, 2007, at http://nymag.com/news/features/39319/.

“this will be an incredibly powerful tool” Ted Murphy in Marshall Kirkpatrick, “PayPerPost.com offers to sell your soul,” Techcrunch, June 30, 2006, at http://www.techcrunch.com/2006/06/30/payperpostcom-offers-to-buy-your-soul/.

PayPerPost versus authentic blogging” Calacanis quoted in Josh Friedman, “Blogging for Dollars Raises Questions of Online Ethics,” Los Angeles Times, March 9, 2007, at http://articles.latimes.com/2007/mar/09/business/fi-bloggers9.

Only a couple of dozen people came The figure and the $200,000- a- month 2007 revenue number are from Fred Vogelstein, “TechCrunch Blogger Michael Arrington Can Generate Buzz . . . and Cash,” Wired, June 22, 2007, at http://www.wired.com/techbiz/people/magazine/15-07/ff_arrington?currentPage=all.

“I couldn’t sleep at night if I did that” Arrington’s post from May 29, 2006, is at http://www.crunchnotes.com/2006/05/29/on-conflicts-of-interest-andtechcrunch/.

“I was online at 2:00 a.m.” Vogelstein, “TechCrunch Blogger Michael Arrington.”

they “want to hear the unofficial story” Esther Dyson in Gordon Crovitz, “Social Networking in the Digital Age,” Wall Street Journal, June 2, 2008, at http://online.wsj.com/article/SB121236428571036459.html.

“digital sharecropping” Nicholas Carr used the phrase to describe user- generated content on his blog at http://www.roughtype.com/archives/2007/09/a_cautionary_ta.php and http://www.roughtype.com/archives/2006/12/sharecropping_t.php.

“it’s a real positive- sum game” Felix Salmon’s post from Oct. 15, 2007, on Portfolio’s website is at http://www.portfolio.com/views/blogs/market-movers/2007/10/15/blogonomics-paying-for-content.

“Until we create a financial structure” “Blogging for Dollars: Giving Rise to the Professional Blogger,” Meg Hourihan’s August 2002 column for Oreillynet is at http://web.archive.org/web/20021013182512/www.oreillynet.com/pub/a/javascript/2002/08/12/megnut.html.

“when we started paying folks” Calacanis posted this to Twitter on June 17, 2008, at http://twitter.com/JasonCalacanis/statuses/837213251.

A detailed essay in the online journal N+1 Carla Blumenkranz, “Gawker 2002–2007,” N+1, Dec. 3, 2007, at http://www.nplusonemag.com/gawker-2002-2007.

“Gawker.com and the Culture of Bile” This was the cover line for Vanessa Grigoriardis’s “Everybody Sucks” piece.

“Every age has its own cultural panic” Denton’s post from Oct. 14, 2007, in response to New York’s piece is at http://nickdenton.org/5083258/the-long-andillustrious-history-of-bile.

“In Web World of 24/7 Stress, Writers Blog Till They Drop” Matt Richtel’s New York Times piece from April 6, 2008, is at http://www.nytimes.com/2008/04/06/technology/06sweat.html.



――第7章 爆発的に拡大するブロゴスフィア――

“the idea of bouncing around” Author interview with Mark Frauenfelder, September 2008.

“I was a mechanical engineer” Interview by Chip Rowe with Frauenfelder at http://www.zinebook.com/interv/boing.html.

Whole Earth Review later picked it up Frauenfelder’s piece on blogging appeared in the Winter 2000 edition of Whole Earth Review and is available at http://www.kk.org/tools/page52-54.pdf.

Frauenfelder found a line drawing Boing Boing’s posts on Kamen’s Segway invention, then known as “IT” or “Ginger,” are at http://www.boingboing.net/2001/01/07-week/.

Frauenfelder had profiled it . . . for The Industry Standard Mark Frauenfelder, “Nouveau Niche,” The Industry Standard, Oct. 23, 2000, at http://web.archive.org/web/20001121145100/www.thestandard.com/article/display/0,1151,19498,00.html.

Down and Out in the Magic Kingdom Doctorow has made his novel freely available in many forms online at http://craphound.com/down/download.php.

“Homesteading the NoosphereEric Raymond’s essay is at http://www.catb.org/~esr/writings/ cathedral- bazaar/homesteading/.

“As a committed infovore, I need” Doctorow’s “My Blog, My Outboard Brain” essay, from May 31, 2002, is at http://www.oreillynet.com/pub/a/javascript/2002/01/01/cory.html.

“Every link one follows from Boing BoingFrom a 2002 email exchange between Justin Hall and Cory Doctorow about styles of blogging, posted at http://www.links.net/webpub/ 200207- boingboing.html.

“I propose a name for the intellectual cyberspace” William Quick’s Daily Pundit blog, January 1, 2002, at http://web.archive.org/web/20020421162114/


“the Distributed Republic of BlogistanDoctorow’s comment reported by Ben Hammersley in “Geeks Go Hack to the Future,” The Guardian, May 23, 2002, at http://www.guardian.co.uk/technology/2002/may/23/internetnews.onlinesupplement.

Brad Graham . . . had used the word long before I.e., in Sept. 1999, at http://www.bradlands.com/weblog/1999-09.shtml#September%2010,%201999. Jason Kottke posted on the matter on June 16, 2002, at http://www.kottke.org/02/06/been-there-done-that-times-a-jillion.

Meg Hourihan pointed out in a 2002 essay “What We’re Doing When We Blog,” O’Reilly Web Dev Center, June 13, 2002, at http://www.oreillynet.com/pub/a/javascript/2002/06/13/megnut.html.

“It was effectively the device” Tom Coates’s post from June 2003 is at http://www.plasticbag.org/archives/2003/06/on_permalinks_and_paradigms/.

Beebo.org’s Metalog An archived version of the Sept. 2000 listing is at http://beebo.org/metalog/.

Clark wrote a post . . . decrying the “ A- list” Joe Clark’s essay “Deconstructing You’ve Got Blog” is at http://fawny.org/decon-blog.html and reprinted in We’ve Got Blog.

“Power Laws, Weblogs, and Inequality” Shirky’s Feb. 10, 2003, essay is at http://www.shirky.com/writings/powerlaw_weblog.html.

The Long Tail Anderson’s original Long Tail article in Wired is at http://www.wired.com/wired/archive/12.10/tail.html. “Fat Head,” e.g., http://www.stat.columbia.edu/~cook/movabletype/archives/2006/12/the_long_tail_a.html; “Big Butt,” e.g.,


Dave Winer wrote that Shirky simply didn’t understand “Clay, Start a Weblog Now,” Scripting News, Feb. 9, 2003, at http://www.scripting.com/2003/02/09.html#clayStartAWeblogNow.

Technorati reported tracking 100,000 blogs Sifry’s 2004 report is at http://www.sifry.com/alerts/archives/000245.html. The most recent “State of the Blogosphere” numbers from 2008 are at http://technorati.com/blogging/state-ofthe-blogosphere/.

“Our bandwidth bills are going through the roof” Frauenfelder’s April 5, 2004, post is at http://www.boingboing.net/2004/04/05/boing-boings-explosi.html.

$1,000 a month Author interview with Frauenfelder.

Jason Calacanis posted immediately The comments for Frauenfelder’s bandwidth- cost post are at http://www.quicktopic.com/26/H/zs665dYrU48w.

any good ad salesperson Frauenfelder interview in Michael A. Banks, Blogging Heroes (John Wiley & Sons, 2008), p. 95.

“They’re the NASCAR of the weblogging world” Lance Arthur’s March 24, 2005, post, “Boing Boing, Ka- Ching Ka- Ching,” is at http://www.glassdog.com/archives/2005/03/24/boing_boing_kaching_kaching.html.

“It’s kind of impossible for me to conceptualize” Frauenfelder interview in Banks, Blogging Heroes, p. 97.

BusinessWeek reported July 14, 2007, at http://images.businessweek.com/ss/07/07/0714_bloggers/source/2.htm.

“It was brought to my attention this weekend” Violet Blue’s post from June 23, 2008, is at http://www.tinynibbles.com/blogarchives/2008/06/digital-notes-anderrata.html.

After David Sarno . . . wrote about the missing posts Sarno wrote multiple posts on the controversy, at http://latimesblogs.latimes.com/webscout/2008/06/violet-blue-scr.html; http://latimesblogs.latimes.com/webscout/2008/07/regardingboing.html; http://latimesblogs.latimes.com/webscout/2008/07/violet-blue-s-1.html;


http://latimesblogs.latimes.com/webscout/2008/07/xeni-jardin-and.html; and http://latimesblogs.latimes.com/webscout/2008/07/boingboing-blog.html.

“Violet behaved in a way that made us reconsider” “That Violet Blue Thing,” July 1, 2008, at http://www.boingboing.net/2008/07/01/that-violet-blue-thi.html.

“Did the Internet’s free speech guardians” Valleywag on July 1, 2008, at http://valleywag.com/5021146/did-the-internets-free+speech-guardians-try-tohush-up-a-girl+on+girl-love-affair.

“she was being used by a groupie” “How Xeni and Violet’s Boing Boing affair went sour,” Valleywag, July 2, 2008, at http://valleywag.gawker.com/5021288/how-xeni-and-violets-boing-boing-affair-went-sour.

The editors explained that, really, it was true David Sarno, “BoingBoing bloggers talk about Violet Blue controversy’s implications,” Los Angeles Times Web Scout blog, July 2, 2008, at  http://latimesblogs.latimes.com/webscout/2008/07/boingboing-blog.html.

“This is my work, this is my blog” BoingBoing’s Xeni Jardin on unpublishing the Violet Blue posts,” David Sarno, Los Angeles TimesWeb Scout blog, July 2, 2008, at http://latimesblogs.latimes.com/webscout/2008/07/xeni-jardin-and.html.

“something I feared would become” “Lessons Learned,” Xeni Jardin on Boing Boing, July 18, 2008, at http://www.boingboing.net/2008/07/18/lessons-learned.html.

“Sometimes talking about stuff does not make it better” Author interview with Xeni Jardin, December 2008.



――第8章 リアルであることの危険――

“What really excited me” Heather Armstrong interviewed via email by Rebecca Blood for “Bloggers on Blogging” series, August 2005, http://www.rebeccablood.net/bloggerson/heatherarmstrong.html.

“I just thought of a poem” Armstrong’s first post, from Feb. 27, 2001, is archived at http://web.archive.org/web/20010406013653/www.dooce.com/march.htm.

“the three distinct moments that My Mother Turned Demonic” Armstrong’s post on April 11, 2001, at http://web.archive.org/web/20010604032828/www.dooce.com/april.htm.

“I will be excommunicated” Armstrong’s post on March 28, 2001, at http://web.archive.org/web/20010406013653/www.dooce.com/march.htm.

As Armstrong recalls it Author interview with Armstrong, July 2008.

“I really naïvely thought” Armstrong quoted in Matt Canham, “Utah blogger makes her life public fodder,” Salt Lake City Tribune, Oct. 15, 2006, at http://web.archive.org/web/20061022135504/http://www.sltrib.com/ci_4492586.

“I want to publicly apologize” Armstrong’s post from Sept. 27, 2001, is at http://www.dooce.com/archives/daily/09_27_2001.html.

“I hate that one of the 10 vice- presidents” Armstrong’s post from Feb. 12, 2002, is at http://www.dooce.com/archives/daily/02_12_2002.html.

“I guess I could be bitter” Armstrong’s post from Feb. 26, 2002, is at http://www.dooce.com/archives/daily/02_26_2002.html.

“I started out thinking” From Blood’s Armstrong interview at http://www.rebeccablood.net/bloggerson/heatherarmstrong.html.

“I am that girl who lost her job” http://dooce.com/archives/about/09_03_2002.html.

“Ask yourself, who is the one person” From Blood’s Armstrong interview.

“I assert that nobody’s ever been fired” Anil Dash’s post from Feb. 2005 is at http://www.dashes.com/anil/2005/02/ dont- poke- the- s.html.

“After I quit the website” Armstrong’s post from Sept. 3, 2002, is at http://www.dooce.com/archives/about/09_03_2002.html.

the online world allows for all sorts of experiments The primary work on this topic is Sherry Turkle, Life on the Screen: Identity in the Age of the Internet (Simon & Schuster, 1995).

“Is it possible that Kaycee did not exist?” The Metafilter post from May 18, 2001, is at http://www.metafilter.com/comments.mefi/7819.

“The whole idea of an online journal” Katie Hafner, “A Beautiful Life, an Early Death, a Fraud Exposed,” New York Times, May 31, 2001, at http://www.nytimes.com/2001/05/31/technology/31HOAX.html.

“So, it’s wrong to be deeply offended” Comment on Metafilter at http://www.metafilter.com/comments.mefi/7841/.

Plain Layne One account of the story is at http://www.museumofhoaxes.com/hoax/weblog/permalink/plain_layne/.

lonelygirl15 Wired’s account from Dec. 2006, at http://www.wired.com/wired/archive/14.12/lonelygirl.html.

Bloggus Caesarihttp://www.sankey.ca/caesar/.

The Diary of Samuel Pepys http://www.pepysdiary.com/.

“Everyone except his closest ‘friends’” Salam Pax’s post from Dec. 25, 2002, at http://dear_raed.blogspot.com/2002_12_01_dear_raed_archive.html.

“The Iraqi ‘Opposition Groups’” Salam Pax’s post from December 22, 2002, at http://dear_raed.blogspot.com/2002_12_01_dear_raed_archive.html.

“the Anne Frank of this conflict” Denton’s comment on his blog from May 30, 2003, is at http://web.archive.org/web/20030621105647/http://www.nickdenton.org/archives/005924.html.

“Other than what he tells us” Jason Kottke’s March 20, 2003, post is at http://kottke.org/03/03/now-seriously-where-is-raed.

“I emailed Salam and asked for proof” Paul Boutin’s March 20, 2003, post is at http://paulboutin.weblogger.com/2003/03/20/.

Peter Maass wrote a piece for Slate “Salam Pax Is Real,” Slate, June 2, 2003, at http://slate.msn.com/id/2083847.

“So you want the best table in the house?” Waiter Rant’s post from April 26, 2004, at http://waiterrant.net/?m=200404.

“We had to redirect all the other customers” http://waiterrant.net/?p=10.

244 “The ultimate vehicle for brand- bashing” “Attack of the Blogs,” Dan Lyons, Forbes, Nov. 14, 2005, at http://www.forbes.com/forbes/2005/1114/128.html.

John Mackey David Kesmodel and John R. Wilke, “Whole Foods Is Hot, Wild Oats a Dud— So Said ‘Rahodeb,’” Wall Street Journal, July 12, 2007, at http://online.wsj.com/article/SB118418782959963745.html.

“How angry people get when a powerful critic” Lee Siegel’s posts as Sprezzatura are mostly gone from the Web, but several have been preserved. This one is from http://www.dailykos.com/story/2006/9/1/22145/38331. Others are at http://majikthise.typepad.com/majikthise_/2006/09/lee_siegel_is_t.html, and at http://lefarkins.blogspot.com/2006/09/wanktacular.html.

“produced with Siegel’s participation” Foer’s apology is at http://web.archive.org/web/20061113135156/http://www.tnr.com/suspended.mhtml.

“We don’t let our writers misrepresent themselves” Foer is quoted in Sheelah Kolhatkar, “New Republic Critic Tumbles in Blog- land: My ‘Dumb Mistake,’” New York Observer, Sept. 10, 2006, at http://www.observer.com/node/39374.

“I decided that since I had fallen” Lee Siegel, Against the Machine: Being Human in the Age of the Electronic Mob (Spiegel & Grau, 2008), p. 9.

He was, in fact, a lawyer in New York Kolhatkar, “New Republic Critic Tumbles in Blog- land,” http://www.observer.com/node/39374.

“The Greater Internet Fuckwad Theory” Penny Arcade comic from March 19, 2004, at http://www.penny-arcade.com/comic/2004/03/19.

“These elements are a necessary ingredient” Kevin Kelly’s observations on anonymity are from Edge.org’s “World Question Center” from 2006, at http://www.edge.org/q2006/q06_4.html#kelly.

disemvowellingTeresa Nielsen- Hayden’s first use of this moderation practice appears to be on her Making Light blog on Nov. 21, 2002, at http://nielsenhayden.com/makinglight/archives/001551.html#8717.

“If some people don’t HATE your product” Kathy Sierra’s post from Dec. 23, 2004, is at http://headrush.typepad.com/creating_passionate_users/2004/12/if_some_people_.html.

“I have cancelled all speaking engagements” Sierra’s original post is archived at http://web.archive.org/web/20070405184438/headrush.typepad.com/creating_passionate_users/2007/03/as_i_type_this_.html.

シエラ問題をもっとも詳しく検討したのはジム・ターナーというブロガーで、その様子は、彼のOne by One Mediaサイトに3回に分けて投稿されている(http://www.onebyonemedia.com/the-sierra-saga-part-1-dissecting-the-creation-of-the-kathy-sierra-blog-storm-4/http://www.onebyonemedia.com/the-sierra-saga-part-2-big-bad-bob-and-the-lull-before-the-kathy-sierra-blog-storm/http://www.onebyonemedia.com/the-sierra-saga-part-3-who-are-the-real-culprits-in-the-kathy-sierra-saga/)。このほか、ドン・パークが行った調査がhttp://web.archive.org/web/20070501185623/http://www.docuverse.com/blog/donpark/2007/03/27/how-awfulにある。

in part to seek help identifying whoever was responsible Sierra explained her intentions at http://headrush.typepad.com/whathappened.html.

“purposeful anarchy” Frank Paynter’s explanation of meankids.org is archived at http://web.archive.org/web/20070408234926/http://listics.com/20070326984.

“It now seems fairly certain” Tim O’Reilly’s post from March 31, 2007, is at http://radar.oreilly.com/archives/2007/03/call-for-a-blog-1.html.

“misogyny grows wild on the Web” Joan Walsh, “Men Who Hate Women on the Web,” Salon, March 31, 2007, at http://www.salon.com/opinion/feature/2007/03/31/sierra/index.html.

Sierra found herself on CNN The report is at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UQ6IxYaD774.

“Blogger’s Code of Conduct” In Tim O’Reilly’s post of March 31, 2007, at http://radar.oreilly.com/archives/2007/03/call-for-a-blog-1.html.

“I take the side of the mean kids” Dave Winer on Scripting News, March 27, 2007, at http://www.scripting.com/stories/2007/03/27/chorusOfCowardice.html.

“Can somebody please explain to me” Rich Kyanka’s post from April 3, 2007, is at http://www.somethingawful.com/d/hogosphere/internet-death-threat.php. A full account of Kyanka and the subculture of “griefers” is in Julian Dibbell, “Mutilated Furries, Flying Phalluses: Put the Blame on Griefers, the Sociopaths of the Virtual World,” Wired, January 2008, at http://www.wired.com/gaming/virtualworlds/magazine/16-02/mf_goons?currentPage=all.

Warnock’s Dilemma Explained in “Jargon Watch,” Wired, Oct. 2001, at http://www.wired.com/wired/archive/9.10/mustread.html?pg=7. Also on Mark Warnock’s Warning Knock blog on Sept. 28, 2007, at http://thewarningknock.blogspot.com/2007/09/warnocks-dilemma.html.

“Everything I’ve ever read about breastfeeding” . . . “A Heartbreaking Work of Super Pooping Genius” Heather Armstrong’s post from Feb. 9, 2004, at http://www.dooce.com/archives/daily/02_09_2004.html.

“The reason you won’t be hearing anything from me” Armstrong’s “Heather, interrupted” post of August 26, 2004 is at http://dooce.com/archives/daily/08_26_2004.html

“And if you ask Jon he will tell you” Armstrong’s post “Because I couldn’t say it on the phone,” from Dec. 13, 2007, is at http://www.dooce.com/2007/12/13/because-i-couldnt-say-it-phone.

“When people say that they can’t believe I’m being so open” . . . “I feel like a crazed kid at a concert” Armstrong’s post “Unlocked,” from Aug. 28, 2004, is at http://www.dooce.com/archives/daily/08_28_2004.html.

“less than what a part- time fry cook makes” From Rebecca Blood’s Bloggers on Blogging interview with Armstrong.

more than 3 million page views a month Figure is from Federated Media’s information page for Dooce at http://www.federatedmedia.net/authors/dooce as of January 2009.

“Some people use that label to belittle” Armstrong’s post on mommyblogging, from May 13, 2008, is at http://www.dooce.com/2008/05/13/didnt-woman-blogabout-al-rokers-nipples.

“a memoir being written as it is lived” Author interview with Armstrong.

265 “People I meet tell me, ‘It’s so weird’” Heather Armstrong talk at BlogHer conference, San Francisco, July 19, 2008.



――第9章 ジャーナリスト対ブロガー――

“I’d seen things come and go in waves” Author interview with John Markoff, Oct. 2008.

“most promising new genre” Julia Keller, “She Has Seen the Future and It Is— Weblogs,” Chicago Tribune, Sept. 7, 1999, at http://web.archive.org/web/20000815223515/http://chicagotribune.com/leisure/tempo/printedition/article/0,2669,SAV- 9909070005,FF.html.

Rob Walker wrote that though he enjoyed weblogs Rob Walker, “The News According to Blogs,” Slate, March 7, 2001, at http://www.slate.com/?id=102057.

“There seems to be no end” Bill Keller’s email to Jeff Jarvis, at http://www.buzzmachine.com/archives/cat_times.html.

“The notion that I needed to be under contract” Demian Bulwa, “Blogger Stays in Prison, Defying Grand Jury Order,” San Francisco Chronicle, October 16, 2006, at http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?file=/c/a/2006/10/16/MNG7FLQ5OT1.DTL.

Apple sued a Harvard freshman Brad Stone, “Apple Rumor Site to Shut Down in Settlement,” New York Times, Dec. 21, 2007, at http://www.nytimes.com/2007/12/21/technology/21apples.html.

“When the people formerly known as the audience” “A Most Useful Definition of Citizen Journalism,” Jay Rosen’s post from July 14, 2008, is at http://journalism.nyu.edu/pubzone/weblogs/pressthink/2008/07/14/a_most_useful_d.html.

a tongue- in- cheek instant- message exchange http://jezebel.com/5050467/what-julia-allison-john-mccain-have-done-to-journalism.

“Covering one of the most important stories of our time” Dan Froomkin, “The lessons of our failure,” Nieman Watchdog, October 17, 2008, at http://www.niemanwatchdog.org/index.cfm?fuseaction=Showcase.view&showcaseid=0092.

A survey of Nieman Fellows Barry Sussman, “The press gets a low grade for pre-Iraq war reporting,” Nieman Watchdog, September 29, 2008, at http://www.niemanwatchdog.org/index.cfm?fuseaction=background.view&backgroundid=00282.

“Propaganda thrives— predominates— in our democracy” Glenn Greenwald, “The Mighty, Scary Press Corps,” Sept. 6, 2008, at http://www.salon.com/opinion/greenwald/2008/09/06/carney/.

a poster at the conservative Free Republic forum Buckhead’s first comment declaring the documents to be forgeries is at http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/f-news/1210662/posts.

an Atlanta lawyer named Harry MacDougald Peter Wallsten, “‘Buckhead,’ Who Said CBS Memos Were Forged, Is a GOP- linked Attorney,” Los Angeles Times, September 18, 2004, available at http://seattletimes.nwsource.com/html/nationworld/2002039080_buckhead18.html.

a simple animated image Johnson’s image is reproduced on the Wikipedia page about the Rather controversy at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rathergate.

“You couldn’t have a starker contrast” Jonathan Klein made his statement on Fox News, as widely quoted on the Web, e.g., at http://itre.cis.upenn.edu/~myl/languagelog/archives/001459.html.

“insufferable hubris and self- righteousness” Van Gordon Sauter, “What’s Ailing CBS News? Let’s Make a Not- So- Little List,” Los Angeles Times, January 13, 2005, at http://articles.latimes.com/2005/jan/13/opinion/oe-sauter13.

 “A passionate amateur” Chris Anderson’s post from Sept. 16, 2008, is at http://www.longtail.com/the_long_tail/2008/09/a-passionate-am.html.

“No matter how diligent Our Good Reporter is” Dave Winer, April 16, 2004, at http://www.bloggercon.org/2004/04/16.

“synonymous with damp mold” James Wolcott, “Critical Condition,” The New Republic, December 4, 2007, at http://www.tnr.com/politics/story.html?id=-69e34cc4-6eb7-4c69-a5a7-24681dfac7c4&p=1.

“If you wanted to keep up with the trial” Jay Rosen’s post from March 9, 2007, is at http://journalism.nyu.edu/pubzone/weblogs/pressthink/2007/03/09/libby_fdl.html.

A New York Times piece on the blog’s trial coverage Scott Shane, “For Bloggers, Libby Trial Is Fun and Fodder,” New York Times, Feb. 15, 2007, at http://www.nytimes.com/2007/02/15/washington/15bloggers.html.

Klein erroneously reported details Joe Klein, “The Tone- Deaf Democrats,” Time, Nov. 21, 2007, at http://www.time.com/time/politics/article/0,8599,1686509,00.html. His blog posts responding to criticism are at http://swampland.blogs.time.com/2007/11/21/latest_column_22/; and http://swampland.blogs.time.com/2007/11/24/fisa_confusion_and_correction/.

When blogger Glenn Greenwald . . . began pointing these mistakes out http://www.salon.com/opinion/greenwald/2007/11/21/klein/index.html.

“I have neither the time nor legal background” Klein’s post from Nov. 26, 2008, is at http://swampland.blogs.time.com/2007/11/26/fisa_more_than_you_want_to_kno/.

When Intel chairman Andy Grove told Felicity Barringer, “Intel’s Chairman Tells Newspaper Publishers to Supply More Insight,” New York Times, April 19, 1999, at http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9B0DE3DC1E3BF93AA25757C0A96F958260.

“given away the store” David Lazarus, “Free News Online Will Cost Journalism Dearly,” Los Angeles Times, December 26, 2007, at http://www.latimes.com/business/la-fi-lazarus26dec26,1,2276712,full.column.

“ self- inflicted cannibalism” Darnton as quoted in Michael Miner, “Death by a Thousand Cuts,” Chicago Reader, Nov. 6, 2008, at http://www.chicagoreader.com/features/stories/hottype/081106/.

“‘ Citizen journalist’ is just the pretty new construct” Oct. 30, 2007, letter to Romenesko at http://www1.poynter.org/forum/view_post.asp?id=12941.

they were like monastic scribes Clay Shirky, Here Comes Everybody (Penguin, 2008).

“The news business— our crowd of overexcited people” Michael Wolff, “Is This the End of News?” Vanity Fair, Oct. 2007, at http://www.vanityfair.com/politics/features/2007/10/wolff200710?printable=true&currentPage=all.

“A person like me who believes in the tradition” Daniel Schorr, quoted in Sam McManis, “NPR’s Schorr Vital Link to ‘Responsible Journalism,’” Sacramento Bee, January 15, 2008, at http://web.archive.org/web/20080116115348/http://www.sacbee.com/107/story/634053.html.

Pete Hamill told his journalism students Hamill spoke on WNYC on June 14, 2007, and is quoted on Jeff Jarvis’s blog at http://www.buzzmachine.com/2007/06/15/pay-no-attention/.

“Any idiot with a laptop” Café customer interviewed on KQED’s California Report, March 7, 2008, available at http://www.californiareport.org/archive.jsp?date=20080307.

“the patient sifting of fact” Michael Skube, “Blogs: All the Noise that Fits,” Los Angeles Times, August 19, 2007, at http://www.latimes.com/news/printedition/opinion/la-op-skube19aug19,0,1667466.story?coll=la-news-comment.

“And this is from someone who teaches journalism?” Marshall’s retort to Skube is at http://talkingpointsmemo.com/archives/024644.php.

“I think you’re full of shit” Bissinger’s April 29, 2008, appearance on Costas’s show is viewable at http://deadspin.com/385770/bissinger-vs-leitch.

Bissinger later apologized “An Interview with Buzz Bissinger,” the Big Lead, May 5, 2008, at http://thebiglead.com/?p=5684.

A 2006 New Yorker piece Nicholas Lemann, “Amateur Hour: Journalism Without Journalists,” The New Yorker, August 7, 2006, at http://www.newyorker.com/fact/content/articles/060807fa_fact1.

“Divided They Blog” http://www.blogpulse.com/papers/2005/AdamicGlanceBlogWWW.pdf.

a 2007 study of “ cross- ideological discussions” By Eszter Hargittai, Jason Gallo, and Matthew Kane; available at http://www.springerlink.com/content/p7m41t21344130t7/?p=09b1b782b5b246ad943a3d968298dec5&pi=4.

“The transformation of newspapers” Eric Alterman, “Out of Print: The Death and Life of the American Newspaper,” The New Yorker, March 31, 2008, at http://www.newyorker.com/reporting/2008/03/31/080331fa_fact_alterman?currentPage=all.



――第10章 誰もがブログを持つ世界――

“One of the most important things” Douglas Adams, “How to Stop Worrying and Learn to Love the Internet,” Sunday Times (London), Aug 29, 1999, at http://www.douglasadams.com/dna/19990901-00-a.html.

“a space in which anyone could be creative” Tim Berners- Lee’s first blog post from Dec. 12, 2005, is at http://dig.csail.mit.edu/breadcrumbs/node/38.

“No, I have a day job” Andreessen’s comment was in an interview in the San Jose Mercury News, unavailable online today, but quoted by Dave Winer at http://archive.scripting.com/2003/03/06#When:8:32:14AM.

“I should have started doing this years and years ago” Marc Andreessen, “Eleven Lessons Learned About Blogging So Far,” July 10, 2007, at http://blog.pmarca.com/2007/07/eleven-lessons.html.

Google pointed me to an American food blogger Kitchen Chick’s post on ya cai is at http://www.kitchenchick.com/2007/03/pickled_mustard.html.

the “Blog” of “Unnecessary” Quotation Marks http://www.unnecessaryquotes.com/

“This blog is a waste of time. . . .” The FAQ page is at http://quotationmarks.blogspot.com/2007/09/frequently-asked-questions.html.

Computer- science pioneer Joseph Weizenbaum Katie Hafner, “Between Tech Fans and Naysayers, Scholarly Skeptics,” New York Times, April 1, 1999, at http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9907E0D61639F932A35757C0A96F958260.

Weizenbaum wrote a letter to the editor New York Times, April 8, 1999, at http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=980DE0DA1438F93BA35757C0A96F958260.

“millions of morons . . . sharing their drivel” Michael Wolff, “Is This the End of News?” Vanity Fair, Oct. 2007, at http://www.vanityfair.com/politics/features/2007/10/wolff200710?printable=true&currentPage=all.

This American Life creator Ira Glass On the Media, July 25, 2006, WNYC, transcript at http://onthemedia.org/transcripts/2008/07/25/03.

Salon Blogs: Gordon Atkinson’s Real Live Preacher, originally at http://blogs.salon.com/0001772/, now at http://www.reallivepreacher.com/; Julie Powell’s Julie/Julia Project at http://blogs.salon.com/0001399/; Dave Pollard’s How to Save the World: http://blogs.salon.com/0002007/; The Raven: http://blogs.salon.com/0001381/.

“Movable Type RIP” http://www.metafilter.com/33072/Movable-Type-RIP.

A March 2008 study by Universal McCann Figures are from http://www.mediapost.com/publications/index.cfm?fuseaction=Articles.showArticleHomePage&art_aid=85025 and also http://technorati.com/blogging/state-of-the-blogosphere/.

Iranian president Mahmoud Ahmadinejad Ahmadinejad’s blog is at http://www.ahmadinejad.ir/en/.

and so does . . . Carl Icahn Icahn’s blog is at http://www.icahnreport.com/.

“the world’s most hated blogger” Declan McCullagh, “Casey Serin: The world’s most hated blogger?” CNET, May 14, 2007, at http://news.com.com/Casey+Serin+The+worlds+most+hated+blogger/2100-1028-6183383.html.

Peter Kenney of Yarmouth, Massachusetts “House pest: One Cape Cod blogger is getting the scoops and setting the pace for Massachusetts casino coverage— for better or worse,” Adam Reilly, the Phoenix, Sept. 12, 2007, at http://thephoenix.com/article_ektid47296.aspx. Kenney’s blog is at http://www.capecodtoday.com/blogs/index.php/Gadfly.

Jane Novak Novak’s blog is at http://armiesofliberation.com/. The New York Times story on Novak, from May 20, 2008, is at http://www.nytimes.com/2008/05/20/world/middleeast/20blogger.html?_r=1&ref=nyregion&oref=login.

Andrew Olmsted, a U.S. Army major Olmsted’s blog is at http://andrewolmsted.com/. The final post is at http://andrewolmsted.com/archives/2008/01/final_post.html.

China alone had 47 million blogs “CNNIC Releases 2007 Survey Report on China Weblog Market,” Dec. 26, 2007, at http://www.cnnic.cn/html/Dir/2007/12/27/4954.htm.

“the largest expansion in expressive capability” Shirky interview by Farhad Manjoo in Salon, March 7, 2008, at http://machinist.salon.com/feature/2008/03/07/clay_shirkey/.

“I believe what we have with the Web today” Doc Searls, “Thanking Our Own Heaven on OneWebDay,” Linux Journal, Sept. 18, 2007, at http://www.linuxjournal.com/node/1000305.

“We are in a fragmenting culture” Lessing’s Nobel lecture is at http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/literature/laureates/2007/lessing-lecture_en.html.

in the Phaedrus, as Richard Powers reminds us Richard Powers, “How to Speak a Book,” New York Times Book Review, Jan. 7, 2007, at http://www.nytimes.com/2007/01/07/books/review/Powers2.t.html?ref=books.

“Contemplative Man” Carr’s quote is from http://blogs.britannica.com/blog/main/2007/06/from-contemplative-man-to-flickering-man/.

“Is the ocean of short writing” Kevin Kelly’s post from June 11, 2008, is at http://www.kk.org/thetechnium/archives/2008/06/will_we_let_goo.php.

the “context of no context” George W. S. Trow, Within the Context of No Context (Little, Brown, 1981).

When publishing was scarce, we filtered first Shirky’s first exposition of this theme was in his 2002 paper on “Broadcast Institutions, Community Values,” at http://www.shirky.com/writings/broadcast_and_community.html.

a flattering New Yorker profile Ken Auletta, “Barry Diller’s Search for the Future,” The New Yorker, Feb. 22, 1993, at kenauletta.com/barrydiller.html.

“ Self- publishing by someone of average talent” “Among the audience,” The Economist, April 20, 2006, at http://www.economist.com/surveys/displaystory.cfm?story_id=6794156.

“There’s just not that much talent” Barry Diller at the Web 2.0 Conference, Oct. 2005, reported by the author at http://www.wordyard.com/2005/10/06/dillers-tale/.

“That is the wrong language” Claude S. Fischer, America Calling: A Social History of the Telephone to 1940 (University of California Press, 1992), pp. 27–28.

Some blogs are simply vehicles for conversation Clay Shirky draws this distinction in an interview in David Kline and Dan Burstein’s Blog! How the Newest Media Revolution Is Changing Politics, Business and Culture (CDS Books, 2005), p. 287.

“There is a point when there are simply too many blogs” James McGrath Morris, “Bloggers’ Big News Needs Scaling Down,” Legal Times, Feb. 28, 2007, at http://web.archive.org/web/20070302171232/http://www.law.com/jsp/legaltechnology/pubArticleLT.jsp?id=1172570589622.

“How many blogs does the world need?” Michael Kinsley, Time, Nov. 20, 2008, at http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,1860888,00.html.

Most blogs are read only “by the writer and his mother” “Figuring Out Blogs, Podcasting, Wikis and Whatever’s Next,” Mediabistro, at http://www.mediabistro.com/articles/cache/a9549.asp.

Christine Kenneally describes the scene The description is from William Grimes’s review of Kenneally’s The First Word (Penguin, 2008) in the New York Times, at http://www.nytimes.com/2007/08/01/books/01grim.html.

“Each blog . . . is like a blinking neuron” James Wolcott, “Blog Nation,” Business 2.0, May 2002, at http://web.archive.org/web/20020601142409/http://www.business2.com/articles/mag/0,1640,39413,FF.html.

“loss of selfness” Nicholas Carr’s post is at http://www.roughtype.com/archives/2007/10/vampires_of_the.php.



――第11章 未来につながるかけら――

・ “When a thing is new, people say, It is not true’”199812月にエヴァン・ウィリアムズのEvhead.comに投稿されたページ(http://web.archive.org/web/19981202032238/http://www.evhead.com/)。この言葉はウィリアム・ジェイムズによるとウェブでは言われているが、私は確認できなかった。可能性としては、『プラグマティズム』に登場する以下の文が変化したものかもしれない−「新しい理論が登場すると、まず、ばかげていると言われる。続いて本当だと認められるがそれは自明で取るに足らないことだと言われる。最後には、その重要性があまりに高く評価され、反対していた者が、発見したのは自分たちだと言い始める」。本書(Longmans, Green and Co., 1907)をスキャンしたものがグーグルにあるが(http://books.google.com/books?id=xh4QAAAAYAAJ&dq=william+james+pragmatism&pg=PP1&ots=agh4j_RIOZ&source=bn&sig=8meyX-jPiPC5WvOMew-C0uddh1M&hl=en&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=4&ct=result)、その198ページにこの部分(英語)がある。

“The blogosphere, once a freshwater oasis” Paul Boutin, “Twitter, Flickr, Face book Make Blogs Look So 2004,” Wired, Nov. 2008, at http://www.wired.com/entertainment/theweb/magazine/ 16- 11/st_essay.

“a gentrifying wagon train of carpetbaggers” Merlin Mann’s post of Sept. 8, 2008, is at http://www.43folders.com/2008/09/08/four-years.

Jesse James Garrett was probably the first Author interview with Garrett, April 2008.

“Bloggers Suffer Burnout” Daniel Terdiman, Wired News, July 8, 2004, at http://www.wired.com/culture/lifestyle/news/2004/07/64088.

a 2005 post titled “The Blog Cycle” Anil Dash’s post from March 21, 2005, is at http://www.dashes.com/anil/2005/03/the-blog-cycle.html.

Alice Mathias . . . tried to school her elders Alice Mathias, “The Fakebook Generation,” Oct. 6, 2007, at http://www.nytimes.com/2007/10/06/opinion/06mathias.html.

“Blogging as I would define it is passé” Jason Kottke’s post from Aug. 20, 2008, is at http://www.kottke.org/08/08/what-makes-for-a-good-blog.

“I don’t think there will be that many blogs around” Bruce Sterling at South by Southwest, March 13, 2007, audio at http://2007.sxsw.com/blogs/podcasts.php/2007/03/14/bruce_sterling_s_sxsw_rant.

It had taken roughly two decades for “social production” Nick Carr, “Who killed the blogosphere?,” post of Nov. 7, 2008, at http://www.roughtype.com/archives/2008/11/who_killed_the.php.

“a little First Amendment machine” Jay Rosen, “Bloggers vs. Journalists Is Over,” Jan. 21, 2005, at http://journalism.nyu.edu/pubzone/weblogs/pressthink/2005/01/21/berk_essy.html.

Zuckerberg’s Law Saul Hansell, “Zuckerberg’s Law of Information Sharing,” New York Times Bits Blog, Nov. 6, 2008, at http://bits.blogs.nytimes.com/2008/11/06/zuckerbergs-law-of-information-sharing/.

“Shall no fart pass without a tweet?” Nick Carr’s post of Nov. 8, 2008, is at http://www.roughtype.com/archives/2008/11/zuckerbergs_sec.php.

“drowning in yak” RU Sirius interview with Mark Dery, Oct. 5, 2007, at http://www.10zenmonkeys.com/2007/10/05/ is- the- net- good- for- writers/.

“What started out as a liberating stream” Neil Postman, “Informing Ourselves to Death,” 1990, at http://web.archive.org/web/20021215073120/http://www.frostbytes.com/~jimf/informing.html.

As Clay Shirky has argued Shirky’s talk at the Sept. 2008 Web 2.0 Expo NY is at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LabqeJEOQyI.

Robert Scoble cheerily explained The video is at http://www.viddler.com/explore/masterlock77/videos/1/.

340 “No, I’m not keeping up with your blog” David Weinberger, June 20, 2005, at http://www.hyperorg.com/blogger/mtarchive/004138.html.

276,000 new books published in 2007: This statistic, from Bowker, is at http://www.bowker.com/index.php/press-releases/526-bowker-reports-us-bookproduction-flat-in-2007.

“produces paralysis rather than liberation” Barry Schwartz’s talk on the “para dox of choice” at the TED conference, Jan. 2007, is at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VO6XEQIsCoM.

Ray Bradbury . . . recently reminded readers Amy E. Boyle Johnston, “Ray Bradbury: Fahrenheit 451 Misinterpreted,” LA Weekly, May 31, 2007, at http://www.laweekly.com/news/news/ray-bradbury-fahrenheit-451-misinterpreted/16524/.

“copying machines” Interview with Cory Doctorow by Joel Turnipseed guestblog - ging at Kottke.org, Nov. 4, 2007, at http://www.kottke.org/07/11/cory-doctorow.

“I make black marks on a white surface” Joel Garreau, “Through the Looking Glass,” interview with William Gibson, Washington Post, Sept. 6, 2007, at http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/09/05/AR2007090502582_3.html.

Gordon Bell, a veteran computer scientist Two good portraits of Bell’s project are Alec Wilkinson’s in The New Yorker, May 28, 2007, at http://www.newyorker.com/reporting/2007/05/28/070528fa_fact_wilkinson; and Clive Thompson’s in Fast Company, Nov. 2006, at http://www.fastcompany.com/magazine/110/headfor-detail.html.

“What value can there be in saving every email” Kevin Kelly’s post from Sept. 15, 2008, is at http://www.kk.org/thetechnium/archives/2008/09/everything_too.php.

“This century we’re going to learn a lesson” Charlie Stross, “Shaping the Future,” May 13, 2007, at http://www.antipope.org/charlie/ blog- static/2007/05/shaping_the_future.html.

“Fifty years from now” From Clive Thompson’s Fast Company piece about Bell.

“Imagine that you had to face” Danah Boyd’s post of March 20, 2007, is at http://www.zephoria.org/thoughts/archives/2007/03/20/to_remember_or.html.

“The College of Cartographers” This quotation is available at http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de/bu/people/bs/borges.html.

“beaten to death with croutons” Bruce Sterling at South by Southwest, March 13, 2007.

“In a world of hyperabundant content” Paul Saffo, “It’s the Context, Stupid,” Wired, March 1994, at http://www.wired.com/wired/archive/2.03/context.html.



ーーエピローグ 皮肉のたそがれーー

In one of his comic monologues Spalding Gray, “Terrors of Pleasure,” in Sex and Death to the Age 14 (Vintage, 1986), p. 236.

“putting your views at risk” Christopher Lasch, The Revolt of the Elites (Norton, 1996), p. 171.

his public about- face “wasn’t pretty at times” Sullivan’s post from Aug. 14, 2008, is at http://andrewsullivan.theatlantic.com/the_daily_dish/2008/08/afterthe-cold.html.